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What You Need to Know When It Comes to Debt for Bond Swap

Basically, a debt for bond swap is a debt swap. It's an exchange of a new bond issue for similar outstanding debt; the reverse can also be true. The callable bond is the most common kind available because it's necessary to call a bond before another debt instrument gets swapped out. The calling schedule of the product is detailed by the prospectus of the bond.

These transactions usually happen so that falling interest rates can be taken full advantage of, at the same time the borrowing cost drops. Tax write-off purposes or changes in tax rates are other possible reasons for this to happen.

Debt For Bond Swaps: Let's Go In-Depth

When an individual or a company calls on a bond that was previously issued and they exchange it for a different debt instrument, that's debt for bond swap. The exchange usually involves the acquisition of far more favorable terms.

Interest rates and maturity are rather strict where bonds are concerned. In order to operate within these bounds, companies tend to issue bonds that are callable. That means the issuer will not be fined or have to pay for any penalties if they end up recalling a bond.

Let's say interest rates have gone up. At that point, a company can choose to take on lower face value bonds and issue them, retiring present debt with a face value that is much higher. The loss will then be taken by the company as a tax deduction.

Callable Bonds

This debt instrument allows the issuer to reserve their right to return the principal of the investor as well as put a stop to interest payments prior to the maturity date of the bond. Two main types are corporate bonds and municipal bonds.

An issuer can call, for example, a bond that would have matured in 2034 in 2022. Sometimes called a redeemable bond, these are usually called at an amount that's above par value but only by a little bit of a margin.

When call values are higher, that's a clear sign of bond calling that was done much earlier.

If interest rates have gone down since the inception of a bond, the issuer might want the debt refinanced at the lower interest rate. The company will be able to save money when the existing bond is called, then reissued.

Special Considerations

  • A company can opt to replace the original bond with another debt instrument

  • A debt for bond swap is a second bond being issued

  • It is most common when interest rates are lowered

  • Replacement of the original bond can be done with certificates, leases, notes, and other points of agreement between borrower and lender

  • The original bond with high-interest rates can be called by a company when interest rates drop


Simply put, a debt for bond swap is a debt swap. New bonds can be issued for similar debt that's outstanding, or vice-versa. A popular debt instrument is callable bonds, which come in types such as municipal and corporate bonds.

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